• Thomas Breen posted an update 6 days, 14 hours ago

    L et al. [16]. We also asked each participant to come to the workshop with fpsyg.2016.01503 a metaphor that reflected her experience of teachinglearning. Metaphors defy boundaries, reflect the whole, and are consistent with high level thinking complexity pedagogy [27]. Menin further describes the power of metaphor for learners: Effective teaching makes use of metaphors for the description of complex events because metaphors both constrain and liberate learners. They attract diverse learners to a collectivity while simultaneously tolerating the ambiguity of creative freedom necessary for connections with the metaphor [12, p. 163]. We began our workshop discussion by asking colleagues to share their teaching-learning metaphors during their introductions to the group. As noted by Carter and Pitcher [27], metaphors are particularly helpful for engaging faculty in complex dialogues. Participants’ metaphors for teachinglearning included roller coasters, being in a forest but unable to see the trees, the act of swimming, a colorful vortex designed snail, and space travel. Many participants referred to their own metaphor, as well as to others, during the introductions and throughout the 3-hour workshop, which reflected the infinite recursiveness that metaphors can bring to a learning community. The second strategy we focused on for creating spaces for emergent learning was a nonlinear design for the workshop.3. What is Emergent Learning?In contrast to andragogy (self-directed learning) and heutagogy (self-determined learning), complexity pedagogy (relational learning) supports jasp.12117 emergent learning in a collective [10, 23, 25]. We purposely set up the activities for our workshop to facilitate emergent learning, that is, new learning that emerges from the collective conversations and activities. This learning is not conceptualized as coconstructed with reflective thoughts of each participant as constructivist pedagogies purport [26]; rather, the learning emerges out of a diverse community in a way that is unpredictable and prereflective. In 2004, Davis et al. wrote of emergence as “instances of webbed, nested, multilayered narratives that become more intricate dense and full of possibility” [25, p. 4]. It is through conversation that learners engage and transform with differences so that emergence reflects a deep and more personal learning [8, 23]. It is the engagement with diverse perspectives/knowledge that unsettles, complicates, perturbs, and calls for further conversation [5, 10]. Each emergent learning moment is unpredictable and unique and cannot be predicted or predetermined beforehand. So, how do educators set up situations of possibility such that new learning emerges? That is one question we asked and, through our own conversations and tossing ideas, we came up with some strategies for possible ways to engage5. Workshop Tulathromycin AMedChemExpress CP 472295 DesignWe designed our workshop with a desire for openness and creativity. The workshop activities were set up in nonlinear stations or spaces; that is, we asked colleagues to work as a collective to decide what station they would visit first and how they wanted to engage with each of the station activities. We anticipated that station activities would enable colleagues to think in different ways, that is, more collectively, conceptually, and/or artistically and more divergently from usual patterns of teaching-learning. It was also our intent to support flexibility while providing sufficient opportunity to hold the group’s creativity in mea.